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François de Chateaubriand
We'll publish them on our site once we've reviewed them. Continue shopping. Item s unavailable for purchase. Please review your cart. You can remove the unavailable item s now or we'll automatically remove it at Checkout. Remove FREE. Unavailable for purchase. By he was forced to flee Britain to avoid his creditors. He was in a French jail when war was declared in Thanks to a benefactor, Rodney was able to secure his release and return to Britain where he was appointed to a new command. Vincent , known as the "Moonlight Battle" because it took place at night, he was posted to the Jamaica Station , where he became involved in the controversial capture of Sint Eustatius.
Vestiges of the Colonial Empire in France
That year he returned home suffering from ill health. During his absence the British lost the crucial Battle of the Chesapeake leading to the surrender at Yorktown. To some Rodney was a controversial figure, accused of an obsession with prize money and nepotism ; this was brought to a head in the wake of his taking of Saint Eustatius for which he was criticised in Britain. Orders for his recall had been sent when Rodney won a decisive victory at the Battle of the Saintes in April , ending the French threat to Jamaica.
He lived in retirement until his death in George Brydges Rodney was born either in Walton-on-Thames or in London , though the family seat was Rodney Stoke , Somerset , he was most born sometime in January His father had served in Spain under the Earl of Peterborough during the War of the Spanish Succession , on leaving the army served as captain in a marine corps, disbanded in A major investment in the South Sea Company impoverished the family.
In spite of their lack of money, the family was well-connected by marriage, it is sometimes claimed that Henry Rodney had served as commander of the Royal Yacht of George I and it was after him that George was named, but this had been discounted more recently. George was sent to Harrow School , being appointed, on leaving, by warrant dated 21 June , a volunteer on board Sunderland. After serving aboard Sunderland, Rodney switched to Dreadnought where he served from to under Captain Henry Medley who acted as a mentor to him.
Around this time he spent eighteen months stationed in Lisbon , a city he would return to several times, he changed ships several times, taking part in the navy's annual trip to protect the British fishing fleet off Newfoundland in He rose swiftly through the ranks of the navy helped by a combination of his own talents and the patronage of the Duke of Chandos.
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While serving on the Mediterranean station he was made lieutenant in Dolphin , his promotion dating 15 February , he served on Namur , the flagship of the Commander-in-Chief Sir Thomas Mathews. The War of the Austrian Succession had broken out by this point, in August , Rodney had his first taste of action when he was ordered by Matthews to take a smaller vessel and launch a raid on Ventimiglia , where the Spanish army had stockpiled supplies and stores ready for a planned invasion of Britain's ally the Republic of Genoa , which he accomplished.
Shortly after this, he attained the rank of post-captain , having been appointed by Matthews to Plymouth on 9 November. He picked up several British merchantmen in Lisbon to escort them home, but lost contact with them in heavy storms. Once he reached Britain his promotion was confirmed, making him one of the youngest Captains in the navy. After serving in home waters learning about convoy protection he was appointed to the newly built Ludlow Castle which he used to blockade the Scottish coast during the Jacobite Rebellion in In he obtained command of the gun Eagle.
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After some time spent blockading French-occupied Ostend and cruising around the Western Approaches , where on 24 May he took his first prize a gun Spanish privateer , Eagle was sent to join the Western Squadron ; the Western Squadron was a new strategy by Britain's naval planners to operate a more effective blockade system of France by stationing the Home Fleet in the Western Approaches, where they could guard both the English channel and the French Atlantic coast.
Eagle continued to take prizes while stationed with the Squadron being involved directly, or indirectly, in the capture of sixteen enemy ships. The members are called Jesuits; the society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in nations. Jesuits work in education, intellectual research, cultural pursuits. Jesuits give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, promote ecumenical dialogue. Saint Ignatius of Loyola , a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees area of northern Spain , founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona , he composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ.
In , Ignatius and six other young men, including Francis Xavier and Peter Faber and professed vows of poverty and obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the Pope in matters of mission direction and assignment. Ignatius was a nobleman who had a military background, the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world, where they might be required to live in extreme conditions. Accordingly, the opening lines of the founding document declared that the society was founded for "whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine.
The headquarters of the society, its General Curia , is in Rome. In , Jorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit to be elected Pope, taking the name Pope Francis; as of , the Jesuits formed the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church. The Jesuits have experienced a decline in numbers in recent decades; as of the society had 16, members, 11, priests and 4, Jesuits in formation, which includes brothers and scholastics.
This represents a This decline is most pronounced in Europe and the Americas, with modest membership gains occurring in Asia and Africa. There seems to be no "Pope Francis effect" in counteracting the fall of vocations among the Jesuits; the society is divided into 83 provinces along with six independent regions and ten dependent regions. On 1 January , members served in nations on six continents with the largest number in India and the US.
Their average age was The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Arturo Sosa ; the society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in various countries around the world and is active in the Philippines and India. In the United States the Jesuits have historical ties to 28 colleges and universities and 61 high schools; the degree to which the Jesuits are involved in the administration of each institution varies. Worldwide it runs colleges and universities.
A typical conception of the mission of a Jesuit school will contain such concepts as proposing Christ as the model of human life, the pursuit of excellence in teaching and learning, lifelong spiritual and intellectual growth, training men and women for others.
Ignatius laid out his original vision for the new order in the "Formula of the Institute of the Society of Jesus", "the fundamental charter of the order, of which all subsequent official documents were elaborations and to which they had to conform. The formula expressed the nature, community life, apostolate of the new religious order, its famous opening statement echoed Ignatius' military background: Whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God beneath the banner of the Cross in our Society, which we desire to be designated by the Name of Jesus, to serve the Lord alone and the Church, his spouse, under the Roman Pontiff , the Vicar of Christ on earth, after a solemn vow of perpetual chastity and obedience, keep what follows in mind.
He is a member of a Society founded chiefly for this purpose: to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine, by means of public preaching and any other ministration whatsoever of the Word of God, further by means of ret. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean , during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands , the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.
Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in , he saw action in the Seven Years' War and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec , which brought him to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society. This acclaim came at a crucial moment in his career and the direction of British overseas exploration, led to his commission in as commander of HM Bark Endeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages.
In three voyages, Cook sailed thousands of miles across uncharted areas of the globe, he mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and scale not charted by Western explorers. As he progressed in his voyages of discovery, he surveyed and named features, recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship , superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage, an ability to lead men in adverse conditions. James Cook was born on 7 November in the village of Marton in Yorkshire and baptised on 14 November in the parish church of St Cuthbert , where his name can be seen in the church register, he was the second of eight children of James Cook, a Scottish farm labourer from Ednam in Roxburghshire , his locally born wife, Grace Pace, from Thornaby-on-Tees.
In , his family moved to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton , where his father's employer, Thomas Skottowe, paid for him to attend the local school. In , after five years' schooling, he began work for his father, promoted to farm manager. Despite not being formally educated he became capable in mathematics and charting by the time of his Endeavour voyage. For leisure, he would climb Roseberry Topping , enjoying the opportunity for solitude.
Cooks' Cottage , his parents' last home, which he is to have visited, is now in Melbourne , having been moved from England and reassembled, brick by brick, in In , when he was 16, Cook moved 20 miles to the fishing village of Staithes , to be apprenticed as a shop boy to grocer and haberdasher William Sanderson. Historians have speculated that this is where Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window.
After 18 months, not proving suited for shop work, Cook travelled to the nearby port town of Whitby to be introduced to friends of Sanderson's, John and Henry Walker. The Walkers, who were Quakers , were prominent local ship-owners in the coal trade. Their house is now the Captain Cook Memorial Museum. Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their small fleet of vessels, plying coal along the English coast, his first assignment was aboard the collier Freelove , he spent several years on this and various other coasters, sailing between the Tyne and London.
As part of his apprenticeship , Cook applied himself to the study of algebra , trigonometry and astronomy—all skills he would need one day to command his own ship, his three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the Baltic Sea. After passing his examinations in , he soon progressed through the merchant navy ranks, starting with his promotion in that year to mate aboard the collier brig Friendship. In , within a month of being offered command of this vessel, he volunteered for service in the Royal Navy , when Britain was re-arming for what was to become the Seven Years' War.
Despite the need to start back at the bottom of the naval hierarchy, Cook realised his career would advance more in military service and entered the Navy at Wapping on 17 June Cook has no direct descendants—all of his children died before having children of their own.
In October and November , he took part in Eagle's capture of one French warship and the sinking of another, following which he was promoted to boatswain in addition to his other duties, his first temporary command was in March when he was master of Cruizer, a small cutter attached to Eagle while on patrol. In June Cook formally passed his master's examinations at Trinity House , qualifying him to navigate and handle a ship of the King's fleet.
He joined the frigate. Samuel Hearne Samuel Hearne was an English explorer, fur-trader and naturalist. In , Hearne built Cumberland House for the Hudson's Bay Company , its first interior trading post and the first permanent settlement in present Saskatchewan. Hearne's father was Secretary of the Waterworks, of the London Bridge who died in , his mother's name was Diana, his sister's name was Sarah, three years younger than Samuel.
Samuel Hearne joined the British Royal Navy in at the age of 11 as midshipman under the fighting captain Samuel Hood , he remained with Hood during the Seven Years' War , seeing considerable action during the conflict, including the bombardment of Le Havre. Two years he became mate on the Brigantine Charlotte and participated in the company's short-lived black whale fishery. In , he found the remains of James Knight's expedition. In , he examined portions of the Hudson Bay coasts with a view to improving the cod fishery. During this time he gained a reputation for snowshoeing. Hearne was able to improve his navigational skills by observing William Wales , at Hudson Bay during — after being commissioned by the Royal Society to observe the Transit of Venus with Joseph Dymond ; the English on Hudson Bay had long known that the Indians to the northwest used native copper , as indicated by such words as Yellowknife.
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When, in , a northern Indian brought lumps of copper to Churchill, the governor, Moses Norton, decided to send Hearne in search of a possible copper mine; the basic theme of Hearne's three journeys is the Englishmen's ignorance of the methods of travel through this difficult country and their dependence on Indians who knew the land and how to live off of it.
First Journey: Since there was no canoe route to the northwest, the plan was to go on foot over the frozen winter ground. Without canoes, they would have to carry as much food as possible and live off the land. Hearne planned to join a group of northern Indians that had come to trade at Churchill and somehow induce them to lead him to the copper mine, he left Churchill on 6 November along with two company employees, two Cree hunters and a band of Chipewyans and went north across the Seal River , an east-west river north of Churchill.
By 19 November their European provisions gave out and their hunters had found little game, they headed west and north, finding only a few ptarmigan and three stray caribou. The Indians, who knew the country, had better sense than to risk starvation in this way and began deserting; when the last Indians left and his European companions returned to the sheltered valley of the Seal River, where he was able to find venison , reached Churchill on 11 December. Second Journey: Since he could not control the northern Indians, Hearne proposed to try again using'home guards', that is, Cree who lived around the post and hunted in exchange for European supplies.
He left Churchill on 23 February. Reaching the Seal River, he found good hunting and followed it west until he reached a large lake Sethnanei Lake. Here he decided to live by fishing. In April the fish began to give out. On 24 April a large body of Indians women, arrived from the south for the annual goose hunt.
On 19 May the geese arrived and there was now plenty to eat, they headed east past Baralzone Lake. By June the geese had flown further north and they were again threatened with famine. At one point they killed three muskoxen and had to eat them raw because it was too wet to light a fire, they crossed the Kazan River above Yathkyed Lake where they found good hunting and fishing and went west to Lake Dubawnt, about miles northwest of Churchill. On 14 August his quadrant was destroyed, which accounts for the inaccuracy of latitudes on the remainder to this and the next journey.
At this point the sources become vague. On his return journey he met Matonabbee , to be his guide on the next journey. Matonabbee may well have saved him from freezing or starving to death. Most of the land Hearne crossed on his second journey is desolate and was not properly explored again until Joseph Tyrrell in Third Journey: Hearne contrived to travel as the only European with a group of Chipewyan guides led by Matonabbee; the group included eight of Matonabbee's wives to act as beasts of burden in the sledge traces, camp servants, cooks.
This third expedition set out in December , to reach the Coppermine River in summer, by which he could descend to the Arctic in canoes. Matonabbee kept a fast pace, so fast they reached the great caribou traverse before provisions dwindled and in time for the spring hunt. Here Northern Indian hunters gathered to hunt the vast herds of caribou migrating north for the summer. A store of meat was laid up for Hearne's voyage and a band of " Yellowknife " Dene joined the expedition. Matonabbee ordered his women to wait for his return in the Athabasca country to the west. The Dene were a mild and peaceful people, they were in a state of conflict with the Inuit.
A great number of Yellowknif. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Explorers.
Volume One: Eighteenth Century. Oxford Press: , p Journal of Historical Biography. Presenting himself as an agent accredited by a Spanish lord, Monneron talked to junior officers who had known Cook, he met John Webb , the artist on the Resolution and painter of a justly famous painting of Cook as well as several drawings of north-west America. Besides his research findings, Webb passed on several other pieces of useful information: how to behave towards the native peoples, English prices for necessities for the voyage showing him there was no financial advantage in buying exchange items in England rather than France , and above all, advice on anti-scurvy measures, particularly malt, of which Monneron dispatched several barrels to Paris, and how to cook anti-scorbutic preparations with ships' rations.
I received these instruments with a sentiment of religious respect for the memory of this great man. Retrieved 20 September On the 13th of July, Only one of the three boats that landed returned