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Universiteit te Gent. De oudste gestichten. Groep C. Groep D. Groep E. Groep B. Aggregaat H o o g er Onderwijs. Germaansche philologie. Philologie classique, — Deflandre, Marie-Louise :. Sa blessure et son abandon. Philologie romane. Recherches sur l'usage syntaxique.

Groupe E. Hardy' s Novels. Bae- len a.

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Een onderzoek naar het Rijmvokalisme. Gedichten R. Shakespeare : A prompt book. Philologie classique. Truiden van af haar stichting tot Philologie germanique. Philologie classique : Premiers ex-aequo avec 91 points sur , M. Ivens, Pierre lie. Naster, Paul lie. Philologie romane : Premiers ex-aequo avec 85 points sur , M. Bal, Willy lie. Philosophie : Premier avec 90 points sur , M. Plas, Albert lie. Histoire : Premiers ex-aequo avec 93 points sur , M. Lejeune, Jean-Hubert lie. Mentions honorables avec 85 points sur , M. Joosen, Henry Dr. Vanderpoorten, Walter lie. Ex-aequo : Melle Claesen, Marguerite Dr.

Van- Hamme, Marcel Dr. Pinxten, Karel Dr. Michielsen, Albert Dr. Melle Raucq, Elisabeth lie. Ex-aequo : M. De Moor, Roger Dr. Dessers, Jean Dr. Melle Perelman, Chana-Szosza lic. Organisation industrielle et commerciale. Piron, Maurice lie. Penninck, Emile lie. Hiersemann, Environ V et VI. Volume I. Leroy cf. II, p. Altenhoven, Notes sur trois passages de Pindare H , Pyth. Benveniste, Noms d'armes orientaux en. Bickel, De moetacismo p. Bidez, Le nom et les origines de nos almanachs p. Contini, Una formazione di plurale per sostituzione di suffiso nel lombardo moderno p.

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y’a comme un(e) Malaise dans les dictionnaires

Deny, Turc kol-ay cf. Du- chesne-Guillemin, Gr. I, 18 p. Gernet, Notes de lexicologie juridique p. Goossens, Sur quelques passages d'Aristophane p. Grammont, Les voyelles d'appui en grec ancien p. Groeneboom, Coniecturarum trias p. Heuten, Cantabrum p. Hill, Amathus p. Hombert et C. Bruxelles Inv. Honigmann, Les dvandoas dans la toponymie byzantine p. Volume II. Josserand, Note sur un passage de l'Ajax v. Kretschmer, Der Name Theoruclnas auf einem etmskischen Gefass p. Lager- crantz, Lat. Leroy, Nugulae bijzantinae p. Mayer, Idg. Remarques sur la place du verbe dans la phrase en grec moderne p.

Pedersen, Les noms grecs de l'inscription bilingue d'Amathonte p. Pfister, Die. Prooimia der platonischen Gesetzte p. Pokorny, Eridanos und Rhodanus p. Radermacher, Exkurse zu Theophrasts Charakteren p. Sinclair, A saying of Socrates p.

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Les farcitures latines de la Passion du Christ de Clermont p. Tierney, A pytha- gorean tabu p. Unbegaun, Le nom de Georges en russe p. Vollgraff, Notes sur une inscription d'Arcadie p. Boisacq p. La brochure : Emploi des signes critiques et disposition de l'apparat dans. Grammont et Dauzat , republie l'excellente initiation que M. D'une part, en effet, M. I, pp. XVII , p. Vendryes Le langage, Paris, et J. Marouzeau La linguistique, Paris, Inscriptions Grecques et Latines. Merlin s'est adjoint M. Le recueil des inscriptions latines du Nord de l'Afrique se poursuit avec la collaboration de MM.

Albertini et Zeiller. Un premier vol. XIII, fasc. Stato, , a. N'oublions pas non plus la base du. I Noricum und Pannonien par MM. Hoffiller et B. S aria ont paru. Blanchet a paru en novembre Le fascicule de Pisae par A. Lugli et Parentium A. Vulic et Zagreb par M. In samenwerking met Dr. Thiel, bijzonder hoogleeraar te Leiden en leeraar aan het Gymnasium te Haarlem, gaf Prof. Muller Jzn van zijn Grieksch Woordenboek een beknopte uitgave, waarvan thans de 2de.

Reductie werd bekomen door weglaten van het vocabularium der moeilijke lyrici, van Aristophanes, Herondas, Theocritus en Menander ; door niet telkens aangeven der plaatsen, door het delgen der uitvoerige taalkundige verklaringen en beschouwingen. Op die wijze werd de omvang van het Grieksch Woordenboek tot op de helft teruggebracht, maar bij al dit,verloor het werk niets aan duidelijkheid. Voor jonge hellenisten biedt het al wat het moet om hun toe te laten, met de minste moeite en binnen den kortst mogelijken tijd, de beteekenis te vinden die ze noodig hebben om den te vertalen tekst te begrijpen.

De tekst is in Marchant-spelling gesteld, het boek beslaat vin en pagina's, is uitstekend gedrukt en stevig ingebonden voor de lezers zal het een genot zijn het werk te raadplegen. Aerts, Grieksche Oefeningen voor Vierde en Derde. Aerts mag met zijn werk geluk gewenscht worden : de oefeningen zijn goed gekozen, handig gegradueerd en bieden eene. De artificio ; 2. De arte ; 3. De artis definitio- ne ; 4. De artis inuentoribus. La Haye, Groeneboom, hoog- leeraar te Groningen, uitgegeven door de firma J. Wolters, Groningen en Batavia. Wat Prof. Groeneboom presteerde is meesterlijk. Als de klassieke philologie tot doel heeft het leven der oudheid onder al zijne vormen, herop te wekken, daartoe gebruik makend van alle disciplinen die ze zich dienstbaar wist en weet te maken, dan brengt deze uitgave er het bewijs van dat het bereiken dezer doelstelling niet tot het domein der zuivere utopie behoort.

Aangrijpender commentaar, suggestiever nota's, treffender tekst-. Wat het voorbereiden dezer uitgave voor studie heeft ge- eischt, zou alleen Prof. De firma Wolters zorgde voor eene prachtig verzorgde uitgave : alleen het uitzicht van het boek trekt aan en noopt tot lezen. Sans doute tous les lecteurs ne partageront-ils pas les conclusions de l'auteur. Nous trouvons dans la causerie de M. Mustilli sur l'iconographie d'Auguste dans la glyptique les plus belles productions de ce genre.

Acerbo tandis que M. Zielinski sur la mission d'Auguste, l'autre de M. A propos des travaux belges, M. Skard, les polonais par M. Prychocki, les allemands par M. Kornemann, les autrichiens par MM. Miltner et Praschni- ker, les hongrois par M. Huszti, les yougo-slaves par M. Van Buren. Le nombre des fiches recueillies en est de 2.

La somme totale des fiches est d'environ L, est de Aux Usatici Barcinonae, au Directorium de P. Albans Chronicle. Scotus : Grammatica Specula- tiva. Strickland Gibson. Anglicus : Esopus. Paul's Camdem Soc. Nombre total de fiches : MXXU Lexicon imperfectum. III-V contenant les registres des tribunaux de la Mazovie. II, pp. Mais M. Bonnard, paru dans le Bulletin Hispanique, t. XL, pp. Wolters, , 27 pp. Tous deux, princes de la raillerie aussi. L'opuscule de M. Les lecteurs de la RBPh. H connaissent, par le compte rendu de M. Mais un romaniste allemand, et non des moindres puisqu'il s'agit de M.

Et quelles sont ses conclusions? Fabius Pic- tor, Plaute, Ennius, etc. Picard, , un vol. Je suis pleinement convaincu de l'excellence de pareil dessein. Le malheur est que M. XVII, p. Revah dans le Bulletin Hispanique t. Struik, cf. XVI, janvier-juin , p. Le chroniqueur, M. Dans un excellent article du Bulletin Hispanique t. Monchamp, de la Correspondance du P. Gustave Cohen. Delfos wijst eerst op een hele reeks Mid-.

Hij blijft dan wat langer staan bij de verklaringen van J. Verdeyen R. XII, ; A. Met een beroep op Jakob de Meyer's Commentarii sive Annales rerum Flandricarum Antwerpen, , Nicolas Despars' kronijk en aan de hand van Blanchard La Flandre poogt Delfos te bewijzen, dat de term Vlaanderen aanvankelijk alleen het gebied der aestuaria aanduidde buurt van Brugge ; 7e eeuw ,. Daar er nu nog, blijkens de Flou, heel wat Vlamingen aan de kust als plaatsnaam voorkomen, onderstelt Schr. Beieren , en wel datief meervoud, min of meer synonymisch van flam en van dezelfde idg.

Hij haalt daarbij een lange reeks, vooral eng. Hoe verlokkend de verklaring ook moge wezen, de onderlinge formele verwantschap van flam c. Akademie der Wetenschappen, afd. Letterkunde, N. De fonologie heeft de studie der klanken uit de objectivistische fonetiek gered. Taaiklanken immers zijn geen alle onderling, al is het nog zo weinig, verschillende geluiden, noch gemiddelden van geluiden. Taalklanken zijn fonemen, d. De studie der semantiek nu mag niet opgaan, betoogt Pos, in een zuiver objectivistische ontleding der betekenissen.

Er bestaat wel analogie tussen fonologie en semantiek in die zin, dat het gebruik der betekenissen, evenals de fonemen, niet on-. Die algemeenheid is een realiteit en op de algemeenheid der betekenissen zijn de sprekende en horende doelgericht. Een leer der betekenissen zal een leer van algemene betekenissen moeten zijn, gelijk de leer der taaiklanken een theorie der algemene fonemen is gebleken te zijn.

Maar ze zijn het ook acous- tisch. Dat blijkt uit de studie der grondtonen en bijtonen der gefluisterde vocalen. Psychologisch nu, voor ons geheugen, is er ook een zeker verband tussen de fonemen. Akademie der Wetenschappen, Afd. Dans le premier le portrait traditionnel du parasite P. Hartog, appelle son petit ouvrage Travel-French, the new companion-interpreter. Lon- don, Dent, , p. Aldus een mededeeling van R. LVII, Blzn. Zij is een waardevolle aanvulling van de bijdragen van Prof.

Willem de Vreese over de overeenkomst van een door hem medegedeeld Russisch lied en ons epos Nederlandsch Museum. Kern Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsche Taal- en Letterkunde. Utrecht, A. Oosthoek, De tweede druk verschilde niet noemenswaard van den eersten : alleen werden eenige kleine veranderingen in de aanteekeningen aangebracht en een paar drukfouten hersteld.

Een zorgvuldige vergelijking tusschen de tweede en de laatste uitgave wees aan, behoudens enkele wijzigingen in de interpunctie, in verband met een andere opvatting cfr. In dit opzicht vermelden wij verzen 41, 51, 58, 60, 87, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,,, , , , , ,,,,,, , , , , , , , , , , en De inleiding werd onveranderd overgenomen. Zij gunt een duidelijk inzicht in ons epos en in de daaraan verbonden problemen. Voor den derden druk werd zij in de nieuwe spelling overgebracht. Ro emans. Eugen Diederichs Verlag, Jena. Heft 3. Das wurde besonders deutlich bei den Feiern, die im vorigen Jahre in Holland und Belgien ans Anlasz des jahrigen Geburtstages Joost van den Vondels stattfanden.

Wir erfahren daraus, dasz am Nach den Katalogangaben, musz die Ausstellung vorbildlich gewesen sein. Sie war in folgende Abteilungen gegliedert : 1. Bild- nisse des Dichters, 2. Zwischen Rhein und Schelde, 3. Amsterdam, die Wirkungs statte Vondels, 5. Hollandische Geschichte und Wirtschaft im Gesichtskreis Vondels, 6. Handschriften, Dokumente, Werke usw. Der geistig-gesellschaftliche Kreis um Vondel, 9. Der reprasentative Stil des offiziellen Holland, Stilistisches und Thematisches zu Vondels Kunst.


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Hechtle hat das nicht getan, aber in dem Artikel von J. Er umspannte sie aber alle mit seinem christlichen Glauben, der Grundlage und Endziel all seines Dichtens war und blieb Aber auch im Politischen nahm er kein Blatt vor den Mund Das erklart, warum anlaszlich des jahrigen Geburts- tages Vondels zu einer wirklichen Verbreitiing Vondelscher Werke im deutschen Volke nichts getan wurde. Von alledem findet man diesmal nichts. Nun, Vondel war den Nazi-D eutschen nur ein willkommener Anlasz, um durch die Veranstaltung einer Vondel- Ausstellung und -Feier zu versuchen einen Teil der Sympathien wiederzuge- winnen, die sie in Holland infolge ihrer Kriegspolitik verloren hatten.

Enfin, M. Waterloo est donc tout d'abord l'exploitation rurale d'un W. Tarlier, Bruxelles, Wilhelm Grammont, op. Chaque section renvoie utilement au chapitre correspondant de la Bibliographie de l'histoire de Belgique, d'H. Tweede vermeerderde uitgaaf. Deel I ; Turnhout, [Stadsarchief]. Chaque fascicule comprendra en effet les rubriques suivantes : I. Moody, The treatment o f the native population under the scheme for the plantation in. Ulster ; III. Une section critique groupant des comptes-rendus bibliographiques et des notes de chronique. XI, , p. XII, lere partie, , p. XIII, , p.

XI, " , p. XIV, , p. Citons seulement : J. Paquay, Het eerste statuut der begijnhoven opgesteld door Jacques de Troyes en uitgevaardigd door Robert de Thourotte rond t. XII, lre partie, , p. Vanderstrae- ten, De Capucienen te Hasselt t. En voici le sommaire : J. Lyna, Inleiding p. Thans, Heide p.

410 réponses sur “y’a comme un(e) Malaise dans les dictionnaires”

Van de Poel, De Limburgsche Kempen. Aard- en aardrijkskunde p. Berghs, Het plantenkleed der Kempen p. Lyna, Geschiedkundig overzicht p. Coenen, Kempische kerken. Kantons Bree en Peer p. Van de Weerd, Kempische folklore p. Lyna et K. Wellens, De Kempische langgevelhoeve p. Bussels, Beroemde mannen uit de barre heide p. Godelaine, Een letterkundige herschepping van de Lim- burgsche Kempen p. Van Dyck, Plaatsnamen met -Zouw.

De waterloopen Zijp. Plaatsnamen met Kat. De toponiem Savoir t. Van de Weerd, Watriscafus en Wariscapia t. Van Heukelom, Toponymie van Kanne t. Pieters, hebben we het einde van de politieke geschiedenis Zie hierboven xvie deel, , bl. De tachtigjarige oorlog in Zeeland, begon met de opstand tegen Spanje te Vere, Vlissingen en Zierikzee.

Zuid-Beveland bleef aan de Spanj aards, evenals Middelburg, dat na een beleg door de opstandelingen ingenomen werd. Zeeland sloot zich aan bij de Unie van Utrecht, maar trachtte zijn eigen bestuur en zijn eigen vloot te behouden. Om deze laatste te beheeren, werd de zeeuwsche admiraliteit gesticht. De bezetting van Zeeuwsch- Vlaanderen mislukte, de Spanj aards namen Sluis terug in, maar in , kwam deze stad evenals westelijk Zeeuwsch- Vlaanderen voor goed in de handen van de Staten Generaal. Na het twaalfjarig bestand, in , trachtte Spinola te vergeefs in Zeeland binnen te vallen.

In veroverde de Prins van Oranje, oostelijk Zeeuwsch- Vlaanderen, en in werd de vrede van Munster gesloten, waarbij Zeeuwsch- Vlaanderen voor goed bij Noord Nederland bleef. Hij trachtte ook vruchteloos de scheepvaart van uit Antwerpen, langs de Schelde vrij te maken, en bouwde een haventje op het Zwin, bij het Hazegras, waar de scheepvaart ook door de Noord nederlanders belet werd. Wij krijgen nog een overzicht van de rol van Zeeland in den. De Franschen die in Zuidnederland binnengevallen waren, openden op 29 November de vrije scheepvaart van Antwerpen, langs de Schelde. Er volgde een Franschen inval in Nederland.

Door het verdrag van 's Gravenhage van 16 Mei , werd Zeeuwsch- Vlaanderen aan Frankrijk afgestaan, en kwam er een Fransch garnizoen te Vlissingen. In bezette Napoleon Walcheren tegen een gebeurlijken Engelschen inval. Deze gebeurde slechts, in , de Engelschen namen toen Vlissingen in. In werd geheel Zeeland bij Frankrijk ingelijfd, en werden Vlissingen en Vere versterkt. Doeltreffende maatregelen werden dan genomen tegen den smokkelhandel met Engeland. In werd geheel Zeeland van de Franschen bevrijd en werd Zeeuwsch-Vlaanderen opnieuw bij Noordnederland gevoegd.

It was essentially through Hamlet that Voltaire discovered and assessed Shakespeare. French readers were soon able to approach Hamlet a little nearer, when Pierre-Antoine de La Place published the first adaptation of the play in Some passages are deemed worthy of alexandrines, others have to be content with prose. The result was a new play, heavily influenced by the classical rules, with only eight speaking roles in alexandrines throughout, action mostly reduced to narration taking place inside the palace in 24 hours.

The main characters are now flanked with confidants to whom they can relate past events and reveal future plans. Though the ghost is never seen or heard, he is felt to be hovering about. The prince eventually proves worthy of the throne by killing Claudius and sacrificing his love for Ophelia who lives on. Her madness, like the gravediggers or the fencing match, would be out of place in such a classical play. Unshakespearean as it was, it allowed audiences to become familiar with the ordeals of the Danish prince.

These bland imitations of the originals nevertheless introduced them to a more lively type of drama than they were used to. The translator took a number of liberties with the text in order to satisfy the refined taste of his subscribers who ranged from Louis XVI and the French Royal family, to the King of England. His appeal to the impartial taste of Europe to decide between Shakespeare and the French master includes a seemingly objective synopsis of Hamlet which is in fact a parody, prosaic paraphrase and bland narration slyly reducing the play to a senseless disconnected story.

And yet he concludes that this raw diamond, which is full of flaws, would lose part of its weight if it was polished Besterman, This nationalistic reaction was shared by a number of his contemporaries. What was at stake was not only the survival of rules, unities, decorum, propriety and the like, but the so far unchallenged superiority of Corneille and Racine.

Besterman, The censures and sarcasms of Voltaire and of many of his contemporaries are largely to be explained by the domination of a dogmatic classicism that French critics claimed to maintain for the benefit of Europe. In Supplement of Genius, or the Art of Composition of Dramatic Poems as practised by many celebrated Authors of the English Stage , he draws up a list of the necessary and to him, ridiculous ingredients that make up an English tragedy; this corroborates the recurrent criticisms addressed to our play: a large number of characters, an intricate plot that mingles tragedy and comedy, a ghost, a heroine going mad, disaster falling on the guilty, vulgar language, etc Again, the contention is not devoid of nationalistic undertones.

The arguments, sometimes even the terms, used by French critics often seem to echo those of their English colleagues; indeed, Voltaire justifies his worst attacks on Hamlet in his Letter to the Academy by appealing to the authority of Rymer Besterman, If Voltaire and his contemporaries all concur that Shakespeare had no taste, they allow more and more that he had genius. Oxymoron and unresolved contradiction are constants in the critical appraisal of the time. This is particularly manifest in the reactions to such forbidden ingredients of tragedy as the supernatural, the mixing of genres, or madness on the stage.

Although objectionable by classical standards, the use of the supernatural, the emphasis on action rather than on narration and many other irregularities, were gradually paving the way for a new form of drama, freed from the shackles of orthodoxy. This is not to say that the time was ripe for critical reassessments. Even the French Revolution did not alter critical attitudes overnight. At the turn of the nineteenth century, the army of neoclassical critics of Shakespeare still marched forward, Chateaubriand making up the rearguard with severe judgments on the improprieties of his drama.

In , English actors coming to perform Othello in Paris were hissed out of the theater at Porte-St-Martin by an audience still traumatized by the French defeat at Waterloo.

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The symbolic rivalry between Racine and Shakespeare now takes a new turn: as the century moves on and the romantic movement develops, Shakespeare is quoted more and more as a precedent for a different conception of art, and Hamlet , with its ghost, gravediggers, scenes of madness and liberty of expression is tapped as a reserve of precious examples.

The monstrosity and wildness berated by Voltaire gradually come to symbolize modernity and freedom. The wind of change begins to blow at the end of the s: the increased presence and success of Hamlet on the stage and the multiplication of translations testify to its influence and to the popularity of the English dramatist. Kemble, followed by Macready in , enjoyed a triumph in the part of the prince. The Hamlet performed in English for the first time in Paris was a pruned version of the play, limiting the complexities of the plot, but the ghost was actually seen on the stage, the scenes of madness were performed and audiences discovered a less grandiloquent style of acting than they were used to.

In , he had performed a colored Othello, but the audience had risen in horror when he killed Desdemona. The limits of stage decorum could only be pushed back very slowly. The English version of Hamlet presented by the English actors played its part in this evolution of French taste. Though Dumas considered Shakespeare as the greatest creator after God, his own Hamlet, prince de Danemark is a pale and distant imitation of the original creation.

This was a Hamlet which could satisfy French classical taste, and yet, with its spectacular costumes and settings and its magnificent acting, it also encouraged confusion of the character with a romantic hero. As earlier with Talma, the public empathized with the actor taking the title part. This famous actor was acclaimed in the part in more than performances and toured the United States with great success in Sprague, Jacquot, , n.

Over the years, Hamlet had become associated with a few striking pictures in the minds of the general public: the ghost, the gravediggers, Ophelia running mad, the duel with Laertes, and above all Hamlet delivering his inevitable soliloquy. Though progress towards appreciation of a more authentic Shakespeare was much slower on the stage than in translation and critical appraisal, the three modes of reception contributed, in their different ways, to the emergence of a romantic Hamlet and later to the construction of the Hamlet myth.

Yet, while spectators were deprived of the sight of the ghost and of the presence of Fortinbras and were even led to believe that Hamlet could live on, readers were offered translations more and more faithful to the original. In , Benjamin Laroche, a journalist, translator of Byron and Dickens, published a translation in prose which was to run into seven editions.

And Victor, the father, who, in the year of the tercentenary, published a bulky book entitled William Shakespeare. Coarse language was no longer omitted, nor were improprieties or quibbles glossed over. Together, they epitomize the way in which translation and criticism of Shakespeare interact throughout the century to promote a dramatic theory which extols as beauties the faults earlier deprecated by Voltaire.

From the s, French critics had turned to Shakespeare for militant support of their romantic cause. In , Alfred de Vigny uses the preface to his adaptation of Othello as Le More de Venise to expose his own dramatic theories based on the mixing of genres and of styles. Shakespeare is now used as a standard in the fight for a new theater and as a source of inspiration by the new dramatists. While the stage Hamlet spoke in alexandrines and used the classical idiom, both the criticism and the translations of the play were more and more concerned with authenticity, more centered on close study of the text and of its Elizabethan context.

His first volume, published in and entitled Les deux Hamlet, included a translation of the Quarto edition discovered in Q1. His substantial introduction appended in , fixes the date of its composition around and of its expansion into Q2 about ten years later. Victor Courdaveaux, whose articles on Shakespeare in the Revue contemporaine Nov. Remarks on Hamlet are thus mostly found in works devoted to Literature in general rather than to Shakespeare in particular. In the revised edition, the concern for discovering the artistic unity of the play is even clearer.

The characters, from the king to the gravedigger, are all pedants who speak but do not act But by and large, the romantic context, which constructs Shakespeare to a demi-god ruling over his own universe, encourages critics to concern themselves with the prince more than with the play. This is partly because interrogations on his hesitations and delay have agitated critics from the start, and more so in the wake of their German counterparts.

Passion excites him to vengeance Paradoxically, the mainly classical stage tradition of the play has played its part in the construction of this image of the prince: from Ducis to Dumas, the story of the play has changed, but from Talma to Mounet-Sully, the hero, along with his monologues, has survived as a meditative character faced with an impossible task. Relayed by the pictorial tradition established by Delacroix, the image of a Hamlet delicate and pale, hair blowing in the wind and contemplating skulls, has moved from the stage to critical analysis and invaded literary consciousness.

In the course of the nineteenth century, Hamlet acquires an existence of his own. In the Almanach du mois Feb. Yet, the Hamlets of the nineteenth century do not all conform to the image of the gentle melancholy hero first introduced by Goethe. Stapfer treats Hamlet as the subject of a moral treatise and sees him as the archetype of the paralyzed intellectual, sick even before he sees the ghost, and eventually subject to moral degeneration. Hamlet is formidable, which does not prevent his being ironic.

He has the two profiles of destiny. By the end of the nineteenth century, the mythical image of Hamlet, a noble hero pitted against a hostile society, had contaminated that of its creator. Based on distortions, sentimentalism and the assimilation of the character to a living figure, the myth was well-established.

The romantic figure had absorbed the classical idiom. The very existence of such a parody works as a confirmation of the myth.


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Laforgue here depicts a histrionic Hamlet, who has disposed of Polonius before the story begins, thus causing Ophelia to disappear. His main preoccupation is arranging the performance of a play. He is constantly determined to act but drifting off into soliloquies on existence. In the course of the following century the sweet prince will at times be dislodged by the arrant knave, yet even the maelstrom of two successive world wars will not disintegrate the Hamlet myth but only displace it.

As the nineteenth century was coming to a close, Sarah Bernhardt started making history with her famous interpretation of the Prince. The production was an enormous success; it toured the States before going to Stratford-on-Avon. But in the early years of the century, French audiences definitely associated the figure of the Danish prince with that of Sarah Bernhardt, in black tights and holding a skull, or as she was represented on the poster by Alfons Mucha, in a white cloak, hands crossed on a sword, with the ghost barely distinguishable in the background.

The play-within-the-play was reduced to a few lines and the dumb-show disappeared altogether. Some seventy years after the romantic playwrights and poets, it was the turn of the stage-directors to shake off the shackles of the traditional theater, and the battles were, again, fought under the Shakespearean banner. His Roi Lear was the first Shakespearean drama to be performed in its entirety in France. The complete text translated by the novelist Pierre Loti was performed with one interval only, without the then traditional interruptions at the end of each act or tableau.

This staging was made possible by the use of a single set made up of drapes which served as a background for unlocated scenes and could be drawn back to reveal painted cloths evoking the castle, the heath or the Dover cliffs. The only previous appearance of a Shakespeare comedy on a French stage had been a heavily adaptated version of As You Like It by George Sand, some sixty years before.

But now the new focus on Shakespeare as a man of the theater induced a few directors to extend their Shakespearean repertoire beyond the traditional tragedies. In the center of the single set, a medieval arch opened onto mobile backcloths which suggested the battlements or the chuchyard, and could also be closed off for indoor scenes. The costumes were gorgeous but the only prop was a bench which could serve as an altar, a table or a coffin. This new emphasis on the wide theatrical appeal of the English dramatist is to be related to the policy of commissioning translations for the stage which took into account the experience of acting and directing.

Antoine had initiated the practice with his Lear. Copeau himself had spent part of the war years translating the tragedies, then the comedies, in collaboration with Suzanne Bing, with a view to producing stage-texts both faithful to the original and easy to deliver in French.

The production was based on the Morand-Schwob translation without any cuts. The original Geneva set had been constituted of grey steel panels which, at the outset, suggested the front of the Danish castle. Seen under different lights or from new angles, they later evoked a court-room, a closet Polonius was killed behind a red curtain or a graveyard. After a hundred performances in Paris, the grey panels had disappeared. The actor-director, who was sometimes accused of puritanism because he kept stripping down his sets, also rejected any naturalistic stage-business that might distract the spectator from concentrating on the words.

Baty considers Q1 as the authentic stage-version, its logical succession of scenes having been conceived by the actor Shakespeare, while Q2 is a text for readers, judging from the unnecessary monologues and verbose descriptions presumably added later by some literary-minded nobleman. The transition from the pre-war wild and extravagant Hamlet to the post-war lucid character, divided between doubt and faith, is best appreciated through the work of this famous actor-director who not only interpreted the part several times, but also wrote several texts analyzing his evolving conception of the play.

This was a period when actors and stage-directors definitely had more to say about Shakespeare than critics and literary figures. Having surmounted the temptation of suicide, he sacrifices himself to the advent of a new world where faith will become possible. Such pronouncements signify the social function which post-war France conferred upon the theater at a time when it was opening up to new audiences both in Paris and in the provinces. The move towards decentralisation had been initiated by touring companies during the war.

But the death of the romantic Hamlet was not due to the war alone. Between the two world wars, as directors widened their Shakespearean repertoire introducing comedies as well as other tragedies , the play had lost its emblematic status, just when it was stripped of its elaborate ornamental stage-effects. Rather unexpectedly, it was through the History plays that this popularisation occurred, in a political context which was probably favourable to their reception.

It is symptomatic that, in , Jean Vilar should have opened the first Avignon festival with Richard II, a play never staged before in France, whose story and references were totally alien to a French audience. The tragedy of Richard, the deposed king, whom the actor interpreted in incantarory tones, moved thousands of spectators, and since , every Avignon festival has presented at least one Shakespeare play.

(Economic Center of Paris Nord University, University of Paris-13)

Directors like Monnet, Vilar or Barrault rejected motivations unsupported by the text. But the new focus on the plays as texts for the stage coincides with a comparative dearth of critical analysis on the page. The First World War, with its heritage of disillusions and spiritual questioning, strips Hamlet of his mythical aura. The world no longer needs you. Nor me. Mackinnon Robertson Legouis, then a Professor at the Sorbonne, was known in Britain for his masterly History of English Literature written with Louis Cazamian which had been published in English in English Literature, Shakespeare, and particularly Hamlet , were now part of university curricula, as indicated by the publication, in , of the first scholarly edition of Hamlet aimed at first-year university students.

The work of R. The amount of information couched in a flowery style and complicated by cross-references and second thoughts is impressive. Academic critics of Shakespeare were on the whole content to echo the concerns of their British counterparts, with no particular interest for Hamlet. Knights or G.

But, beyond a similarity in title, the French essay is very different in content. In this context, T. This list is revealing of the respective importance of performance, translation and criticism in the reception of Shakespeare in the first half of the century. Another well-documented biography is that by Clara Longworth de Chambrun The French fascination for the Shakespeare Mystery also spawned a number of anti-Stradfordians, the most famous being Abel Lefranc, the champion of the Earl of Derby.

His personal commentary on the tragedy following the usual considerations on text, date and sources combines a concise synthesis of twentieth-century criticism with some personal insights. This is generally considered as a token of the abiding quality of these still famous translations which keep being reprinted in cheap editions , rather than a sign of the incompetence of French translators in the fifties.

Yet this monolingual edition also reflects the undetermined status of Shakespearean translation in the late fifties, the translations by Hugo fils being aimed at the reading-public, while some other plays e. In the Foreword appended to volume 1 ix-xiv , Gide indeed explains that this translation is the outcome of a long difficult process, Shakespeare being the most difficult playwright to translate and Hamlet his most intricate text: all his other plays, he writes, are crystal-clear in comparison. The novelist also states that his object was to translate the play for performance.

The contents of the twelve sumptuous leather-bound volumes confirm that at that time the French felt on safer ground with translation than with critical issues. Because, Pierre Leyris explains, translations have to bridge the gap between different ages as well as between different languages and our age must find an equivalent to the oral style of the Elizabethan stage. For him, translation approached as a dramatic activity is not synonymous with adaptation. Non, est. The Hamlet that had haunted the Symbolist poets, then disappeared in the trenches of the first World War, was being resurrected in the Paris of the s.

Beyond this resurgence of Hamletism in a deconstructed guise, the country of Foucault, Lacan, Derrida and others has nurtured surprisingly few militant analyses of Hamlet among its natives. One amusing side-effect of the hunt for both mirror-images and fathers-and-sons, is that Fortinbras now has his own back and becomes flanked by his absent father a subject for debate. As a comparatist, he also emphasizes the French reception of the play. Similarly, in the introduction to his own translation of the play , 1: , Michel Grivelet combines the traditional scholarly approach on text, date and sources with a clear style and commentaries to smooth down access to the play for the general public and inform the student.

His study of the dramatic development of the plot, rooted in historical criticism, also glances at contemporary precedents and views on revenge, the ghost, the play-within-the-play and ends on an overview of French reception and the myth surrounding the play. But in both collections, even though the influence of Lacanian concepts is sometimes perceptible as in J. Whatever its avatars, the French fascination for Hamlet has never been denied since Voltaire and we find it reasserted on the stage of the end of the twentieth century. The more Hamlet is considered as a monument, the more it attracts directors there are at least ten productions worthy of note in the eighties alone ; many feel that they must grapple with the play at some stage in their career.

Although Hamlet is not as much of a classic in France as in England, directors may be motivated by the desire to do something different or to experiment for better or for worse. Amidst this tangle of material, their choice of text may serve as a guide. In spite of increased reverence for the Shakespeare canon, adaptations have not disappeared from the French stage, even at the end of the century.

In fact, the poster for the production, which showed a headless Shakespeare holding the head of Olivier in the part of Hamlet, said it all: this brilliant iconoclastic version went for the metatext more than for the text which Michel Vittoz reworked for each new production.

The ghost did not appear, but then the play coexisted with its own ghost in a production often pronounced to be about the play more than of the play, which is in fact emblematic of the status it had acquired in twentieth-century France. Conversely, the Hamlets of the eighties seemed to vie for authenticity but with varying results. The prince was interpreted by a comedian, Philippe Avron, as an alien in a world of caricatures. He very neatly derided a court peopled with flatterers and liars who popped up, puppet-like, on the various levels of the set; but, by all accounts, the tragic feeling was lost in the process.

It was plastically beautiful, stylized, even verging on the abstract; the set designed by Yannis Kokkos a recurrent name in Shakespeare production was an immense white, polar perspective, sometimes broken up by red velvet curtains creating smaller spaces.

A raised platform running across its breadth was used by Claudius as a long table, by Hamlet as a sort of catwalk. The ghost rose from behind it in full Renaissance armor and so, later, did Fortinbras, galloping between rows of pikes. Though acclaimed by critics and audiences alike, this production was also felt to be too intellectual and to lack emotion and sensibility. Marthouret, a disciple of Peter Brook, started in Lyon before ending up at the now mythical Bouffes du Nord. In this country of living dead, the ghost returned as Fortinbras, the director making significant use of a tradition of sometimes purely economical doubling.

The cast was limited to ten actors: Rosencrantz and Guildenstern were telescoped into one who then came back as Osric. Shakespeare is expensive to stage, compared to the French Classics, and many smaller companies cannot afford to produce his plays. This stage-floor, a metaphor for the disrupted order of the kingdom of Denmark, would sink in parts to offer a space to the play-within or a tomb to Ophelia, or, more strikingly, rise to follow the mole-like progress of the ghost or gape open to reveal the underworld from which he had suddenly erupted, galloping noisily on horseback accompanied by eerie music.

Claudius who doubled as the ghost in Nanterre and Gertrude Marthe Keller had sparkling scenes. After this decade of Shakespearean effervescence, the nineties may seem anticlimactic. Terry Hands had written his own adaptation, sticking close to the English text. The Hamlet of Peter Brook, which closed the twentieth century at the French Bouffes du Nord and opened the twenty-first in London and New York, rejected both nationality and iconicity.

Others noted a deliberate intent to deconsecrate the icon, to play down the purple patches, and to reduce the French text, shown as surtitles, to literal translation. Shakespeare et la folie. Paris: Maloine, The Hague , Aynard, Joseph. The Hague, Barante, Prosper de. Paris: Ladvocat, Barrault, Jean-Louis.