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A novel? The difference between a novel and a testimony is that in fiction you can invent, imagine, and elude. Only later did I understand the meaning of his desire to turn his life into a novel, by his reluctance to speak directly of certain things, and by his habit of secrecy, his addiction to secrecy. Secrecy may become second nature. In Paris at the beginning of the twenty-first century, Jacques Rossi still wrote his Parisian address book in secret code.

Jacques feared, above all, that any indiscretion could harm friends who were still alive. I, on the other hand, was demanding absolute transparency. His first reflex was, therefore, to refuse, to rebel, to treat me as an interrogating officer, in other words, as a torturer. And then, suddenly, he would reveal things that, in turn, shed light on other things. For me it was like detective work. Testimony, while it is always reconstructed to a greater or lesser degree, has to meet standards of accuracy.

Of truth. This is what we discovered together while writing the book. He had no right to lie, even by omission. He had a duty to bear witness on behalf of the millions of companions who disappeared in the Gulag. To tell the truth of his experience was also to speak on behalf of his dead comrades. An enormous responsibility. A witness, especially when he or she has had to wait a long time before speaking, engages in a work of memory rather than of history. He exercised it like a muscle, not only when he was a secret agent, but also when he was in the Gulag where nothing could be written down and kept.

Use your memory! It is those bitter seeds alone which might sprout and grow someday. It is he who determines, when recounting the past, which parts to delete and which to retain. Above all, the witness has a point of view on his story, while the historian is supposed not to have a stance. On the one hand, he had been a committed communist who religiously believed in the cause of the proletariat and social justice. On the other hand, in this soviet concentration camp system inherited from the tsarist House of the Dead, this cultivated man of Franco-Polish origin was a foreigner. This ardent communist was not a Soviet by culture, even though he spoke Russian perfectly.

In a way, therefore, he looked at the soviet concentration camp system with fresh eyes. He was perhaps more sensitive than the Russians to the absurdity of the system. For example, he recognized that he seldom encountered pure sadism among the individuals implementing the system, such as guards, officers, or even the secret police torturers. Quite simply, these men were obeying orders, orders that would probably turn them as well into victims of the same system in the not-too-distant future.

Being a foreigner also helped Rossi, as his fellow prisoners trusted him more than they would have trusted another Soviet. And it also helped his fellow prisoners to confide in him, which would later facilitate his work of passing on the story. How beautiful was that utopia. Here is an example:. When Rossi was a Comintern agent, he had to carry secret documents on a cruise ship in the Mediterranean with a fake Swedish passport. On boarding the ship, he learned that there was another Swede on board. He was seized with panic at the idea that he would be unmasked by a real Swede.

And so he pretended to be sick and missed out on the whole of this beautiful voyage. This story he told Rudy, a prisoner who, between two interrogations, has just arrived in his miserable cell. He did so in order to distract his prison mate from the torture he had just undergone. Rudy, a Pole like Rossi, listened to the story and smiled:. Another advantage for this particular zek was that he had been a scholar of fine arts and languages.

For this gifted linguist who spoke more than ten languages, studying the language spoken in the Gulag became a springboard to constructing a work that is not just a work of memory, but also a work of history. History is distinguished from memory by its objective, or at least its intersubjective nature. And this is the case here. It is in the name of thousands of witnesses that Rossi speaks.

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And it is no longer a matter of one individual point of view on the Gulag. It is an academic type of research based on primary sources as well as references to archives, documents, and statistics. This is what allows for as accurate a reconstruction as possible of the reality of the Gulag. Jacques Rossi did not content himself with passing on the memory of a first-hand witness.

He wanted to leave behind a legitimate, historical record by constructing his monumental Gulag Handbook. After all, there have been so many testimonies. His originality is that he became the historian of his own history by giving it a universal dimension. That is why knowledge of the Gulag is fundamental to the study of the communist totalitarian regime.

Unfortunately, no sovietologist ever did the apprenticeship there. As we have seen, for years and years, Rossi listened to fellow prisoners who confided in him. They were very diverse. All these Soviets spoke to him, in their individual jargon, the Gulag slang, a specific language born of a specific culture.

Rossi was multilingual and passionate about languages. He had a remarkable memory, which he used during his time as an undercover communist. That same memory would retain hundreds and thousands of Gulag expressions that were not part of the Russian language proper. It was a composite language, consisting of the accumulation and sedimentation of several linguistic strata, the slang of the ordinary prisoners, the legal language of the penitentiary administration, the specific vocabulary of the political prisoners, and words from pre-revolutionary Russian penal colonies.

He used it to describe and indeed explain the concentration camp universe from which it sprang. There are words and there are testimonies. The first step was, therefore, to assemble the facts. But, when Rossi undertook this Dantean task, he was no quiet researcher in the Library of Congress. He was a zek who had been held in the Gulag, for years on end, who had not been allowed to take any notes, and who was subjected to regular searches, even in the most intimate places.

Nevertheless, he managed to write and keep records. He also made sketches of what he saw, which were confiscated How did he manage this? He refused to reveal it to me, to avoid betraying a secret that could be of use against other detainees. The second step was to take place in communist Poland, after Rossi had left the Gulag, and had started, thanks to his still fresh memories and his secret records full of recollections, to set up a gigantic file. But here, too, he was not living in a country with freedom of expression.

And so, to transfer his work to the west, he had to use the diplomatic bag of the French embassy, where he had some contacts. The third step is of particular interest to you and to me. Upon leaving Poland, Rossi set off for the United States at the invitation of a former Polish student and, in Washington, met Father Bradley, Dean of the College, who invited him to take advantage of the freedom of expression and make use of the library at Georgetown.

So it is here that he completed his work on primary sources, which he gathered through patient, detailed, encyclopedic research, and wrote a book on all aspects of the soviet concentration camp system. The result is, first of all, a fascinating linguistic investigation of an unknown idiom, the language of the Gulag: several thousand entries in the original Russian edition, published in London in In this manner, the subjective witness gave way to the intersubjective historian and drew closer to the challenging goal of objectivity.

Usually, witnesses do not much like historians who have not, themselves, suffered the situations they describe and analyze. Historians, for their part, mistrust witnesses, suspicious of their good faith, accuracy and veracity. Rossi managed to reconcile the two. He spent twenty-four years of his life listening, recording, and conceiving his project. Then he applied himself to editing the records, drawing up the files, checking and confirming his work by searching through archives, documents, studies, and works by other people. If Memory and History are to complement and benefit each other, the past must not be cultivated for itself but must, above all, be used to serve.

This is how Jacques Rossi saw it.

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He wanted to place his experience at the service of education with a view to warning the world. His individual testimony as a zek crushed by an oppressive system was to be placed at the service of a universal cause. In this mass slaughterhouse, what became of the individual? What happened to the human being? What about forgiveness and the spirit of vengeance? How can a human being protect his soul in this gigantic crushing machine of degradation and destruction?

How can he or she survive twenty-four years of captivity? This is where individual testimony is of greatest value. And it is a mark of the greatness of the existential choice of Jacques Rossi, the former zek , that in the final analysis he concluded that he had no personal resentment against these men, even the criminals who abused him in the Norilsk camp, even the policemen who tortured him in Butyrka prison, even the false companions who betrayed him and who helped to have him sentenced for a second time.

The more the desire for revenge, which only impedes the search for truth, is reduced to a pitiful settling of personal scores, the more noble is the task of struggling to avoid repeating the nightmare. Rossi wanted this awful experience endured by millions of men and women to serve as a lesson.

Will it prevent new blindness? The question remains open. Survival is at the heart of the problems surrounding the concentration camp system.

Why am I not dead? That is the ultimate question Translated from French. When I asked this question over and over again, Jacques replied wearily as if he were always being asked to explain the unexplainable. And I had read. I had studied. In short I was lucky. I wasn't forced to commit dirty tricks.

I met a few human beings. In the end, it was a matter of resilience Each of these good reasons is worthy of close inspection and affects us all, as they touch upon the limits of human capacity to endure. I would add another good reason, another trait that characterized Rossi: namely his spirit of resistance.

It was immense. For example, he underwent three hunger strikes while he was in the Gulag. How can you go on hunger strike in a world where you are constantly deprived of food? Indeed, as with many other questions, Jacques could never really provide a final answer. And that is why, however significant his work of memory and history, however important his testimony and his attempts to prevent such horrors being repeated, it calls for further research so that the why and how of totalitarian systems, and their attendant crimes against humanity can be better understood and explained.

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There is always a certain amount of subjectivity in research, however academic and objective it may be. The reason why the impact of my first meeting with Jacques Rossi was so strong is that I, myself, am the granddaughter of people deported to the Nazi camps. Jacques Rossi may have come back from the Gulag, but my grandfather never returned from Auschwitz.

Indeed Rossi had some blind spots. For him nothing was worse than the Gulag and he believed that the Holocaust had been given too much media coverage in comparison with the silence that surrounded and still surrounds the memory of the Gulag. He did not deny that in the Nazi camps, death was an end in itself, while in the Soviet concentration camp system; it was life that had no value.

However he showed that the Nazi concentration camp system had been inspired by the soviet one, which had preceded it both in time and organization. In fact, I went there of my own free will. However immense a testimony, a work of memory, or a work of history, it also has its limits. These inevitable boundaries can be crossed by other individuals, the new experts, like the participants in this conference. They can be enriched with the help of new archives and previously unpublished discoveries.

And so it is up to to you—students—to continue the work, to ensure through description, analysis and further interpretation of these horrendous systems, that they are not reproduced. Contrary to Shalamov, for whom the camp is definitely a school against life La route de la Kolyma , Belin, , p. And he invited us to follow in his footsteps, to fill in the gaps in his information, to research even further: now, new technologies have been developed, certain archives have been opened, time and distance make it possible to discover and disseminate truths that, until just a short time ago, were too uncomfortable to be discussed openly.

Jacques Rossi may have disappeared physically ten years ago, but his spirit remains in this very place where I met him, where he wrote The Gulag Handbook. Through me, he is asking other researchers to continue the work that he sought to achieve until his dying breath. He would encourage us, above all, to denounce, to elucidate those systems that massacred so many people in the darkest days of the past century and still exist today. This task is important for democracy. It is a just cause.

Hoy le habla a este Congreso pleno una mujer Presidenta. Todos reconocen las palabras de Michelle Bachelet ante el Congreso en mayo de Una mujer presidenta no cambia el destino de las mujeres en general. Pero vale la pena analizar este simbolismo. La historia de las mujeres es su memoria colectiva.

Quisiera mencionar los momentos de la historia de las francesas —esta telenovela— que tuvieron repercusiones en la historia colectiva. El derecho fundamental de la democracia, el derecho a voto —el llamado sufragio universal— solo era ejercido por los hombres. En los dos casos, el objetivo es la igualdad de derechos entre mujeres y hombres. Esta idea fue una ruptura necesaria. Los tiempos han cambiado. Solo las mujeres viven la experiencia de la maternidad. Esta diferencia esencial y existencial no se puede negar. Fue precedida por luchas de mujeres y un manifiesto.

En la ley Roudy establece el rembolso del procedimiento por parte del sistema de seguridad social del Estado. Es interesante seguir su itinerario. No muy buenos. Ha sido eficaz solo en los escrutinios plurinominales de las elecciones europeas y municipales. En las elecciones legislativas con escrutinios uninominales, en cambio, los partidos han preferido pagar multas. Al menos impiden los retrocesos que a menudo han frenado los avances de las mujeres.

En muchos hogares franceses, las mujeres que no tienen ayuda tienen de hecho una doble jornada laboral. Y han tratado de atraer a los hombres en sus luchas. De hecho, en los movimientos feministas de ayer y de hoy, participan muchos hombres. Desvalorizar y ridiculizar fueron las estrategias preferidas de su propio partido.

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Para los socialistas franceses, contrariamente a los alemanes, por ejemplo, el feminismo era una idea burguesa, y ridiculizaron a las feministas y el movimiento sufragista. Pero hubo una presidenta en Chile. Es desde una perspectiva no chilena que me permito observar el milagro de una presidenta chilena. Al dejar la presidencia, su tasa de popularidad era muy alta. Por otra parte, las cifras muestran que la falta de candidatas en los partidos, tanto en Chile como en Francia, lleva a su escasez en el Parlamento y en los consejos municipales.

De las respuestas a mis preguntas, podemos retirar algunas lecciones. No basta que gobierne, como Angela Merkel, debe tener un proyecto feminista, como Michelle Bachelet. Mujeres que se empoderen, que asuman el control de su destino sin esperar que la sociedad masculina se los proponga. El modelo laico incluye la igualdad en el trato a los hombres y las mujeres. En , Yourcenar acababa de morir. Un editor me propuso trabajar sobre esta otra gran escritora del siglo XX.

Una mezcla impresionante de documentos de identidad, calendarios, fragmentos de diarios, fotos antiguas. Las respuestas a mis preguntas se encuentran en los propios libros de la escritora. Al comienzo la trata bien y luego la trata con violencia, una violencia muy a menudo reservada a las mujeres.

Solo que Yourcenar no es cualquier mujer.

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Es una escritora mundialmente reconocida. Pero a ella le da lo mismo la Academia francesa. Lo que quiere es viajar con Jerry, que ha esperado tanto. En el momento de embarcarse, en octubre de , no tiene un centavo, ha tenido algunas pasiones, ha amado hombres y mujeres. Y estalla la guerra. Yourcenar construye en sus cartas su estatua, que nosotros tratamos de deconstruir en la obra. Nunca fue a la escuela. Las listas de sus lecturas de juventud son impresionantes. El padre, Michel de Crayencour, es el origen de la escritura de la hija.

Es su primer lector. Para ambos, la edad y el sexo son cosas secundarias e intercambiables. Su primer amor, que describe como una simple aventura, ya es un joven que prefiere a los hombres. Marguerite escucha y aprende. Los gustos sexuales son aleatorios. Lo importante es la belleza. Somos castigados por no haber podido quedarnos solos.

El deseo rechazado en la mujer se pervierte y se degrada en la escritora en apetito de infelicidad. Y la voz de la narradora convoca a un ausente, siempre el mismo. Cuando uno evoca a Dios, se vuelve Dios. Poco a poco ocupaba el lugar del hombre que me obsesionaba. Nomadismo, errancia y peregrinaciones marcan la juventud de Marguerite. Al final de la guerra, la retienen en Estados Unidos Grace Al mismo tiempo, tuvo una capacidad excepcional para situarse en destinos distintos y proyectarse en el otro de manera ejemplar y universal.

Desagradable mezcla de una carne envejecida y una carne joven. Faute de changer de camp, on change de genre ou de couleur. Fallait-il dire la Presidenta ou la Presidente? Ensemble de soie sauvage beige avec galons. Pragmatiquement on changera le protocole. Un compagnon? Hillary Clinton aussi. Une politique de croissance,. On lui reproche son manque de charisme et sa faiblesse. On ricane. Si les pauvres sont moins pauvres, les riches sont de plus en plus riches.

Pasaron volando. On respire. Mais je ne me plains pas. Selon Lorena Fries op. La loi ne passera jamais. Pardonner oui. Oublier jamais. En abril de , de visita en la isla de Pascua, de pronto diviso una silueta familiar, cabellera rubia en movimiento. Con Sonia compartimos muchas afinidades. Entre feminismo y literatura, la cocina no es menos importante.

Los hombres se zambullen en las olas para extraer el pescado. Cocinar es transformar lo crudo en cocido. Y hay tantas maneras de cocinar —es decir, de realizar estas transformaciones— como hay culturas en el mundo. El umu es un crisol, a la vez la matriz donde se elabora el paso de lo crudo a lo cocido y el centro de la reciprocidad. El umu, en efecto, recupera todos los aportes y los restituye en una forma local pero propia a todos los gustos. La cocina de la cazuela o del horno se agregan a la cocina al vapor pero no la reemplazan.

Para los socialistas franceses, a diferencia de los alemanes, por ejemplo, el feminismo era una idea burguesa y los movimientos feministas fueron ridiculizados.

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